The devil is in the details information warfare in the light of russias military doctrine. It tested these lessons in the recent august 2008 war with georgia1 which marked the first use of cyber warfare and information operations in conjunction with a. The conflict in ukraine is largely considered to be a strong example of hybrid warfare, where the russian federation is using hybrid tactics to influence ukraine and especially the civilian population. Framed by the historic 202015 conflict in ukrainewidely described by western media as a coldwarstyle clash between the russian federation and the united statesnato alliancethis qualitative case study examines how social media was used as a platform for propaganda warfare waged by clandestine bloggers and special operations commandos known as trolls deployed.
Ukraine needs military help from abroad in terms of weapons, training, and. For a more detailed examination of cybers role in russian information warfare doctrine, see keir giles, russias new tools for confronting the west. The overall purpose of this paper is to scrutinize the contemporary hybrid warfare employed by russia in ukraine and determine which elements have been most critical for russias success. The malware infections were observed in concurrent with a nonstop telephone flood at utility plants technical support departments.
Throughout the paper, the concept of hybrid warfare is examined and applied on case study of crimean annexation. The critical role of information operations and special operations. Pdf russia has been using an advanced form of hybrid warfare in ukraine since early 2014 that relies heavily on an element of information warfare that. Prior to entering academe, he worked for more than 20 years in. The russian approach to hybrid warfare as demonstrated by operations in ukraine is a particular focus for discussion. Pdf putins information warfare in ukraine researchgate. They have been aimed primarily at destabilizing the situation in ukraine and placing pressure on its government and citizens to adopt solutions regarding their countrys political system as proposed by russia so that ukraine could be controlled by russia and remain within. Cybersecurity interdisciplinary systems laboratory cisl sloan school of management, room e62422.
Exemplifying that force is the hacktivist group, cyberberkut. The lessons of eastern ukraine are rather mixed, demonstrating the limits of lowcost asymmetrical approaches even against a relatively weak and vulnerable state. Russias traditional conception and practice of information warfare iw. Pdf swedish defence university researcher margarita levin jaitner highlights current russian information warfare iw theory in chapter 10. Cyberberkut motto in the vanguard of the nonlinear war now raging in eastern ukraine is an old weapon, disinformation, wielded by an unconventional force. Russias efforts in eastern ukraine proved to be a series of improvisations in response to resistance and friction when the initial political warfare effort foundered. Russias information warfare is thus a significant challenge to the west. It is very clear that the russian influence is a part of this russian irregular forces, russianbacked forces and russian finances are very active in eastern ukraine, breedlove said. Introduction a new type of war has emerged, in which armed warfare has given up its decisive place in the achievement of the military and political objectives of war to another kind of warfare information warfare. This happened because russianspeaking citizens of ukraine who had undergone necessary psychological and informational treatment intoxication took part in the separatist coup and the.
Keeping perspective the cyber attacks in ukraine are the first publicly acknowledged incidents to. A military assessment of the russian war in ukraine stephen blank senior fellow american foreign policy council. Russia showed the world the effectiveness of social media as a weapon system in the cyber domain. Lessons for visegrad countries sergiy gerasymchuk abstract although the issue of hybrid war with its instruments and phases is well elaborated in the academic. Ukrainian officer details russian electronic warfare. Information war and the russiaukraine conflict usf scholar. This effort was principally a byproduct of the general information campaign to convince the russian domestic audience that ukraines interim government was the result of an illegitimate coup. The united states recently released change 1 to its joint publication 30 and describes information as a joint function, it updated its definition of the information environment and stated that cyber is. Hybrid warfare, especially in connection with russian actions in crimea has been an intensely debated concept. Experts detected virus software was found in some networks, sbu says.
It is identical to the concept of information warfare which is regularly pushed forward by journalists and civilian analysts. Russias information warfare campaign includes budgeting for the staterun. Due to the prevalence of cyberattacks related to political events in the region, it is unsurprising that there was a strong online component when protests erupted in ukraine in november 20, both in support and opposing the prorussian government at that time. Russia has integrated cyber and information warfare organically. The paper examines the russian approach to cyber warfare, addressing both its theoretical and its practical underpinnings.
Lessons from russias operations in crimea and eastern ukraine. Russia has been using an advanced form of hybrid warfare in ukraine since early 2014 that relies heavily on an element of information warfare that the russians call. Lessons from russias operations in crimea and eastern. By leveraging the population against one another, it successfully took ground from another sovereign nation without the employment of massed conventional forces. For more information about think visegrad and its members visit russian nonlinear warfare in ukraine and moldova. Download fulltext pdf download fulltext pdf cyber and information warfare in the ukrainian conflict research pdf available january 2018 with 3,069 reads. Moscow capitalized on several political errors of the. Russias approach to cyber warfare michael connell and sarah vogler. The range of this activity illustrates how cyber warfare can be distinguished from information warfare, and suggests that future kinetic actions are likely to be accompanied by both.
Both the historical background and chronology of the ukrainian conflict are important in understanding the context in which it developed. This is an unclassified version of the original document. Continuity and innovation in moscows exercise of power, london. Jun 17, 2014 russian information warfare capabilities ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary of the republic of latvia to the united states andris razans commented recently on the decision of the russian government to pull back significant ground forces from the ukrainian border, stating that the government of moscow in reality is continuing.
In november 20 a series of protests in the ukraine resulted in a change of government, which was followed by a prorussian incursion of crimea in 2014 and. A resurgence of fascism, rampant russophobia, the ethnic cleansing of local russian populations, drunk nato soldiers this is how russia portrays and slanders the societies of the baltic states. What lessons can we learn from russias cyber and information campaigns against ukraine. Prior to entering academe, he worked for more than 20 years in the computer design industry, in the areas of embedded. Pdf cyber and information warfare in the ukrainian conflict. In chapter two we pointed out the need to look more deeply into the origins of russias information warfare in the ussr and specifically to locate its roots in campaigns against ukrainian and baltic independence movements.
Information warfare is the manipulation of information trusted by a target without the targets awareness so that the target will make decisions against their interest but in the interest of the one conducting information warfare. Cyber warfare conflict analysis and case studies mohan b. Russia has been using an advanced form of hybrid warfare in ukraine since early 2014 that relies heavily on an element of information warfare that the russians call reflexive control. From its definition of cyber to its implementation of information warfare for strategic effect, russia views this new domain differently than the u. This is an excerpt from the sources of russias great power politics. Ukrainian officer details russian electronic warfare tactics. At a conference of the potomac institute, us analysts and ukrainian military leaders. Information warfare the united states recently released change 1 to its joint publication 30 and describes information as a joint function, it updated its definition of the information environment and stated that cyber is a global domain within the information environment. Therefore, the russian view of modern warfare is based on the idea that the main battlespace is the mind. Russian information operations in ukraine do not herald a new era of. Fox while some in the military say that russia provides. This article explores the dynamics of digital disinformation in the conflict between russia and ukraine. All warfare is based on deception to subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skill. Jun 25, 2018 this is an excerpt from the sources of russias great power politics.
However, an examination of russian strategy, argumentation, and practice in estonia, georgia, and ukraine between 2006 and 2016 demonstrates that the. In other words, those nations or organisations that think they understand russian information warfare on the basis of current studies, and are responding by preparing for currently visible threats and capabilities, are out of date and will be surprised once again by what happens next. The gerasimov doctrine builds a framework for these new tools, and declares that nonmilitary tactics are not auxiliary to the use of force but the preferred way to win. State, media and civil society in the information warfare. Hybrid warfare and the russian federation informational. Closer to the truth is that russia has a long history of using information as a weapon both in the context of mobilising its own. A military assessment of the russian war in ukraine. Framed by the historic 202015 conflict in ukraine widely described by western media as a coldwarstyle clash between the russian federation and the united statesnato alliancethis qualitative case study examines how social media was used as a platform for propaganda warfare waged by clandestine bloggers and special operations commandos known as trolls deployed. Whether one calls this approach to war hybrid warfare, newgeneration warfare, ambiguous war or any of the other number of terms being thrown around, russia has shifted the paradigm in contemporary war, creating new dilemmas and problems for the u.
According to the local media, the ukraine is suffering information warfare attacks. White analysis of the cyber attack on the ukrainian. Russian information operations in ukraine do not herald a new era of theoretical or doctrinal advances, although they aim, in part, to create precisely this impression. Apr 01, 2017 winn schwartau, author of information warfare and recognized iw theorist, describes the information age as computers everywhere. Are russian hackers infecting critical infrastructure in. The result was a clear military victory on the battlefield by the operationalization of a wellorchestrated campaign of strategic communication, using clear political, psychological, and information strategies, the full operationalization of new generation russian warfare. Cyber and information warfare in the ukrainian conflict. Russias use of disinformation in the ukraine conflict. Figure prorussian rebels inspect the offices of an ukrainian border troops military unit in luhansk. Information is now a species of weapon, write russians maj.
Soviet origins of russias hybrid warfare download the pdf reflexive control causes a stronger adversary voluntarily to choose the actions most advantageous to russian objectives by shaping the adversarys perceptions of the situation decisively. Simultaneously, the political, economic, and information warfare campaigns that had been set in motion were masked by the threat of a fullscale russian invasion in other parts of ukraine. As a result, it is not clear when information warfare begins, ends, and. Russian troop mobilizations and activity near the ukrainian border diverted international. For the purposes of the paper, the theory of hybrid warfare was chosen as an analytical category. Information warfare in an information age national defense.
Russian information warfare in the baltic states resources and aims. The crimean operation perfectly shows the essence of information warfare. Submitted to the systems design and management program. As discussed, the flaws noted in reflexive control doctrine serve as examples of how difficult it is currently, and will be in the future, to control the consequences of offensive actions and conduct information warfare in an information age. Information warfare in an information age national. Russian decisionmaking in ukraine has demonstrated the ability to use cyber and information warfare to influence operations to support military and political objectives, and continued preparation of the cyber environment to create a range of options for future action. The use of cyberspace as the conflict was escalating the simmering political tension inside ukraine escalated in november 20, when former ukrainian. Warfare, strategy, russian federation, nato, european security. Oct 30, 2019 a ukranian military officer has offered new insights into the scale and scope of russian electronic and cyber warfare capabilities, including details on gps jamming and spoofing tactics, and how. The new generation of russian warfare aspen institute.
Jun 10, 2019 simultaneously, the political, economic, and information warfare campaigns that had been set in motion were masked by the threat of a fullscale russian invasion in other parts of ukraine. The functional aspect of the strategy reflects the concept of information warfare as outlined in the doctrine. From symmetric to asymmetric warfare by a combination of political, economic, information, technological, and ecological campaigns. However, also in common with aspects of russian power which had been largely. From war in a defined period of time to a state of permanent war as the natural condition in national life. International relations scholars have presented the online debate in terms of information warfarethat is, a number of strategic campaigns to win over local and global public opinion, largely orchestrated by the kremlin and prowestern authorities.
Russian information warfare in the baltic states resources. Information war and the russiaukraine conflict, military cyber affairs 1, no. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the impact of cyber within russian information warfare as experienced in ukraine. The lessons of eastern ukraine are rather mixed, demonstrating the limits of lowcost asymmetrical approaches. Eisac analysis of the cyber attack on the ukrainian power grid march 18, 2016 vi see the appendix for an evaluation of the credibility and amount of technical information that is publicly available.
Soviet origins of russias hybrid warfare by maria snegovaya introduction t he kremlin has been implementing a novel strategic approach in ukraine since at least february 2014 that depends heavily on russias concept of information warfare. The majority of articles were news stories, followed by statements, but there. Since 2008, russian has conducted cyber operations and information operations in conjunction with a military campaign in ukraine and syria and absent a military campaign in finland, latvia, france, germany, and the united states. Ukraine needs military help from abroad in terms of weapons, training, and finances to help sustain its government and economy in the face of russian aggression. Reflexive control causes a stronger adversary voluntarily to. Annexation and hybrid warfare in crimea and eastern ukraine. Ukrainian officer details russian electronic warfare tactics including radio virus the officer said that sanctions that have targeted russian made. Using the ukraine conflict as a case study, this paper argues that hybrid warfare known as nelineinaia voina, or nonlinear warfare in russian is the simultaneous combination and employment of multiple military and nonmilitary state tools in conflict, but its successful use ultimately relies on an effective information operations campaign.1375 988 969 335 397 1145 895 1393 156 211 771 1162 863 1034 1246 501 275 404 823 1126 766 1031 1454 408 84 1553 1377 250 909 965 1495 1110 892 60 749 1237 1242 1340 1176 760 536 722 431 1026 1406 2 1204 1156